Hey Friends,

I see people getting engaged in multiple forms of communication a day. From answering questions to initiating small talk, from introducing people to each other to providing feedback, we all find ourselves needing to manage different types of communication. This nimbleness, when paired with social expectations of appropriateness and efficiency in our communication, can be quite daunting to even the most experienced in the game.

What I have learned is that employing a structure can help make those conversations more efficient. This allows us easy starting points, transitions, and clear endings. During the week I stumbled across a work done by Matt Abrahams of Stanford University in the field of communication. this is what he says;-

Communication structures serve as a temporary structure for our messages. They allow us easy starting points, transitions, and clear endings. They help us to be concise and relevant. Also, research evidence suggests that structured information is more easily processed and remembered by our audiences.

Matt Abraham suggests a – WHAT, SO WHAT & NOW WHAT’model. I did find this structure worth adding to my communication toolkit. This structure promotes logical and clear thinking to facilitate impactful communication. 

Let me break it down for you:


First, define or describe your key ideas or arguments. You have to do it in a clear, concise manner and keep it devoid of jargon and flourishes. Most important ask yourself – “What are the critical few bits of information, I need to convey to maximize loyalty and support?”

So what?

This is the second step where you focus on the relevance of your ideas or arguments to your audience. You must be sure to take your audience’s perspective into account. Remember, to maximize the effectiveness – ‘ it’s less about what you want to say and more about what your audience needs to hear’.

Now what?

Finally, your last part should highlight the thoughts, feelings, and actions you wish your audience to either hold or enact. Be clear and direct in how you phrase these so as to reduce ambiguity. Be aware of the tone you use to convey this information. Your tone (e.g., sense of urgency, confidence, excitement, etc.) directly impacts your audience’s perception of both you and your message.

At the highest level, the “What? So what? Now what?” structure affords you cognitive bandwidth because it provides you with how you intend to convey your messages.

How does this structure look in practice? Here are some ways you can employ this technique.


Questions are a great opportunity to deploy this structure. For example, imagine a job interview where you are asked: “What makes you to be qualified for this job?”

  • What? I have over 12 years of experience in migrating to new systems and implementing new processes.
  • So what? These previous experiences will help me to provide your client with high-quality results, while also assisting you to streamline your deployment process.
  • Now what? I’m happy to have you discuss my work with some of my former clients.


People who need to provide constructive feedback can also leverage this structure. For example, you have a subordinate who failed to complete his report on time.

  • What? I’ve noticed that your assigned task was not completed within our agreed-upon timeframe.
  • So what? This puts us at a disadvantage in knowing where we stand and it might jeopardize our next meeting.
  • Now what? I need you to complete this task/report by tomorrow morning. Please let me know what I can do to assist you.

Introducing Something or Someone

Introductions can often get tricky and confusing. Using this structure can help you to be clear and set right expectations for what is to come.

Introducing Something 

  • What? I am excited to introduce the latest version of our product. In this release, we’ve added many usability enhancements and improved our speed.
  • So what? Now our clients can more easily complete their tasks and save time and money.
  • Now what? When you leave this conference session, please install it today.

Introducing Someone

  • What? I am honoured to introduce Dr. J Singh, who is here to discuss his insights into the operation management of Golf Courses.
  • So what? His work has changed how many people now make daily decisions in a better way while performing their assigned tasks. I am certain you will think differently when you leave from here.
  • Now what? Without further ado, join me in welcoming Dr. J Singh.

Making Small Talk

Many of us struggle to engage in small talk, especially with people we don’t know well. This structure can help you to engage and sustain initial conversations. Use the three questions to get anyone to express themselves.

  • What? What is your view/opinion on the latest attempt to reduce carbon footprints/energy consumption?
  • So what? Why do you think it is so important to reduce carbon footprint/energy?
  • Now what? What can you do to help reduce these?

Take good care & enjoy reading this week’s dose of ‘Mindful Productivity & Cerebral Happiness’.


Do follow the ‘JOE’s Life Skills Lab ( Click here )and get yourself enrolled in my E-Mail Newsletter  (Click here) “SUNDAY RETAZOS” sent exclusively to my subscribers with weekly updates on Mindful Productivity, life lessons and interesting articles, I discover during the Week. I AM SURE YOU DO NOT LIKE TO MISS OUT ON THIS 

Get in touch… — JOE’s LIFE SKILLS LAB/Joe Sehrawat (Click Here)

Image Credit – Photo by Austin Distel on Unsplash

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Next Post


Sun Oct 8 , 2023
During the week, I came across an interesting concept called ‘ Attention residue’ and it made me quite intrigued to know this side of our […]

Enjoy this blog? Please spread the word :)

Follow by Email